ALIENS Learn More • TexasInvasives.org • or • Plants.USDA.gov 85 Buffelgrass Pennisetum ciliare Not to be confused with native Buffalograss. Introduced from Africa into south Texas / northern Mexico to stabilize soils after the droughts of the depression era. Dense clumps become rhizomatous. Prolific seed production. Crowds out drought tolerant native grasses. Early identification and treatment is essential so as not to allow plants to produce viable seed, and reduce the areas disturbed mechanically using the Tomahawk hoe. Changes fire regime burning during the peak germination time for natives. This process is a downward spiral that favors buffelgrass at the expense of natives. Dense monocultures result. Prohibited noxious weed in Arizona. Non-native. Height up to 3 feet Warm-Season Perennial Africa, Asia, Europe Bur Clover Medicago sp. Also called Bur Medic and Yellow Clover. Cool season annual legume. Problematic because it forms a mat. Seed transported in animals fur / coat. Climax in vegetative growth occurs during the time when native warm season species germinate. This mat of vegetation robs moisture and shades out native warm season seedlings. Bur clover dies back in heat of summer leaving ground bare and exposed. Prolific seed production. Burs stick in socks and animal fur. Caution, seeds are sometimes included commercially in "native" seed mixes. Considered noxious in Arizona. Non-native. Height up to 1 foot Cool-Season Annual Southern Europe Cheat Grass Bromus sp. Cool season annual. Competes with native cool season wildflowers for sunlight, moisture and soil. Prolific seed production. Persistent in disturbed areas. Young plants produce large amounts of tender green growth which can quickly dominate area with dense canopy. Dies out in temps above 90 degrees Fahrenheit leaving soil bare. It has been estimated that cheat grass invasions causes wheat farmers in USA & Canada $350-$375 million in control and loss of yield each year. Hand pulling entire plant with roots is effective. Keep bag of native seeds tied to your belt and throw a pinch into each hole left by pulled cheat grass. Brought to US by early settlers as packing material for fine china and other fragile items. Non-native. Height up to 2 feet Cool-Season Annual Europe / SW Asia Carrizo Arundo donax Also called Giant Cane. Introduced in the 1820's for roofing material and erosion control in drainage canals in Los Angeles area. Often planted in people’s backyards as a privacy screen. Control entails education & cooperation of neighbors including municipalities. Extremely aggressive and rhizomatous in nature. Among the fastest growing terrestrial plants in the world (nearly 4" per day). Spreads underground. To present knowledge, Arundo does not provide any food sources or nesting habitats for wildlife. Leaves and stems contain a variety of harmful chemicals which protect it from most insects and deter wildlife from feeding on it. Is extremely damaging in riparian ecosystems by outcompeting native species. Constant hand removal on a regular basis is the only organic containment possibility. For more info research Nueces River Authority's Pull-Kill-Plant program efforts. Non-native. Height up to 20 feet Warm-Season Perennial Asia N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E