86 Learn More • TexasInvasives.org • or • Plants.USDA.gov King Ranch Bluestem Bothriochloa ischaemum Also known as yellow bluestem, this grass spreads through prolific seed production and rhi- zomes. Introduced to Texas via the King Ranch (KR) in an effort to stabilize sand dunes. This grass makes up to 9 seed crops per year. Fast growing, dense, short vegetation prevents other warm season native grasses from getting a foothold. Seeds move around in the wind and animal fur. Likes disturbed areas. Becomes more aggressive with mowing. It is often found growing in mixed colonies with Cane bluestem, Bothriochloa barbinodis a native species of the same genus. This is the key to management. These two species thrive under the same conditions and fill the same niches. Use Tomahawk. Prescribed fire in summer followed by drouthy conditions can provide up to 85% reduction in population. Non-native. Height up to 2.5 feet Warm-Season Perennial Asia Johnsongrass Sorghum halepense This tall and stragly-looking grass was first brought over from the Mediterranean as a gift to a plantation owner in Mississippi just 150 years ago. He liked it, and established it on his land where it grew thick and fast. From there, it has spread all over the southeastern quadrant of the United States and can be found in spots as far west as Texas and even California. It thrives on any patch of disturbed soil it can find, whether plowed or bulldozed or just overworked. A single plant produces up to 5,000 seeds per year, and those seeds can lie dormant in the ground for up to twenty years to come. This perennial grass has fleshy rhizomes that easily break into live pieces of viable roots, rendering persistant mechanical removal extremely necessary. Make sure to get all fleshy rhizomes. Read more about Mr. Johnson's Curse www.seedsource.com. Non-native. Height up to 6 feet Perennial Africa / Asia Chinaberry Tree Melia azedarach Grows fast! Soft wood makes them fall over and clutter site with limbs. China Berry’s produce a large seed crop each year. Often confused with native western soapberry. Major pest in aquatic ecosystems. Escaped from residential landscapes. Texas Dept of Agriculture has recently added to official state invasive specie list. Non-native. Height up to 45 feet Perennial Himalayas / Asia Musk Thistle Carduus nutans Also called Nodding Thistle. Musk Thistle is prickly all over - not to be confused with the beautiful non-prickly native American Basketflower. Introduced in the early part of the century it is now wide spread. Forms extremely dense stands which crowd out desirable natives. Seeds have fluffy plumes and are easily distributed by wind. To eradicate, chop below bottom leaves before seedhead forms. Identify young seedlings by lobed wavy margins on leaves with yellow spines. Normally flowers in mid-summer. Seeds often found in cool- season cover crops. Caution to purchase only clean seed mixes. Non-native. Height up to 6 feet Cool-Season Annual Europe / Asia Aliens compete fiercely for available sunlight and water N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E *photo taken at Parque Isabela, Christopher Columbus' first homesite in Dominican Republic