87 Privet Ligustrum sinense Available for sale at big stores, this evergreen shrub escapes urban landscapes and quickly invades riparian areas. Dense thickets are formed suppressing native vegetation and wildlife habitat. One plant makes thousands of small purple berries with seeds inside. Birds eat seeds and disperse in natural areas. Help educate your neighbors. Hand dig to remove. Poisonous to most pets. Non-native. Native Alternatives: American Beautyberry (p. 28), Mexican Buckeye (p. 37), Mexican Plum. Height up to 25 feet Shrub Europe / Asia / Africa Tocalote Centaurea melitensis Also called Malta Star-Thistle, this plant produces spiney yellow-flowered heads. Although Tocalote seedlings look similar to young Indian Blankets wildflowers, Tocalote's are more lobed. Best if identified when young as chopping at this stage is easy. Take care if chopping when plant has seed heads as it has a special trick. Tocalote's normally have a few hidden seed heads at the very base of the plant, make sure to get these and below the lowest leaves. Many seed heads will be on top of openly branched stems. Seed heads stick to animals and clothing be sure to clean and remove before continuing to uninfested areas. Fungi and insects are currently being tested for introduction into the United States as a biological control of tocalote. Caution recommended to any 'quick fix' of introducing alien fungi and insects. History is full of examples which demonstrate the "cure" can be worse than the illness. Non-native. Height up to 3 feet Cool-Season Annual Europe / North Africa St. Augustine Stenotaphrum secundatumis Often referred to as “carpet grass,” St. Augustine is a broad leaf turf grass that thrives in tropical regions where rainfall is plentiful and freezing temperatures are unusual. Stoloniferous species that roots at the nodes & spreads with a creeping growth pattern. Leaf blades are folded and coarse textured, rounded at the tip and contracted at the base. Susceptible to attacks by fungi, grub worms and chinch bugs. Requires frequent mowing, fertilizer, insecticides, and irrigation to thrive during dry summers... and prayer for survival through harsh winters. The era of St Augustine lawns has passed. Root systems are shallow, making for easy removal by light tilling or hoeing with our Tomahawk. Be sure to remove all stolons to ensure re-growth will not occur. Have fun with new native outdoor living space! Non-native. Height up to 1 ft Warm-Season Perennial Tropical Regions N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E N O N - N A T I V E ALIENS Spotted Knapweed Centaurea stoebe Introduced in the 1890's, this invasive weed has spread across the USA. Like many aliens, it can replace native vegetation via competition to degrade the quality of wildlife habitat. This weed can produce thousands of seeds each year and once a seed bank is established, eradication can take several years. In the first state-wide find for this species, participants on a Native Plant Society of Texas field trip to Balcones Canyonlands National Wildlife Refuge found and identified the invasive plant. One day later, voucher specimens were collected and all plants were removed. Single plants can be effectively managed by hand pulling or digging. If flower parts have formed, carefully bag and properly dispose. Non-native. Fact sheet available online: www.nps.gov/plants/alien/fact/cest1.htm Height up to 5 ft Cool-Season Biennial to Perennial Europe / Russia / Siberia N O N - N A T I V E p h o t o b y C h u c k S e x t o n U S F W S , r e t i r e d